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The Governors then formally submit the amendment to their State legislatures or the state calls for a convention, depending on what Congress has specified. In the past, some State legislatures have not waited to receive official notice before taking action on a proposed amendment. When a State ratifies a proposed amendment, it sends the Archivist an original or certified copy of the State action, which is immediately conveyed to the Director of the Federal Register. The OFR examines ratification documents for facial legal sufficiency and an authenticating signature.

If the documents are found to be in good order, the Director acknowledges receipt and maintains custody of them. The OFR retains these documents until an amendment is adopted or fails, and then transfers the records to the National Archives for preservation.

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A proposed amendment becomes part of the Constitution as soon as it is ratified by three-fourths of the States 38 of 50 States. When the OFR verifies that it has received the required number of authenticated ratification documents, it drafts a formal proclamation for the Archivist to certify that the amendment is valid and has become part of the Constitution.

This certification is published in the Federal Register and U.

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Statutes at Large and serves as official notice to the Congress and to the Nation that the amendment process has been completed. In a few instances, States have sent official documents to NARA to record the rejection of an amendment or the rescission of a prior ratification. The Archivist does not make any substantive determinations as to the validity of State ratification actions, but it has been established that the Archivist's certification of the facial legal sufficiency of ratification documents is final and conclusive. In recent history, the signing of the certification has become a ceremonial function attended by various dignitaries, which may include the President.

Amendment Summary: 27 Updates to the U.S. Constitution

Quartering of Soldiers. Search and Seizure.

Jury Trial. Non-Enumerated Rights. Rights Reserved to States. Suits Against a State.

Media Library: 12th Amendment

Election of President and Vice-President. Abolition of Slavery and Involuntary Servitude. Protects rights against state infringements, defines citizenship, prohibits states from interfering with privileges and immunities, requires due process and equal protection, punishes states for denying vote, and disqualifies Confederate officials and debts. Voting Rights. Federal Income Tax. Popular Election of Senators.

Women's Right to Vote. Commencement of Presidential Term and Succession. Repeal of 18th Amendment Prohibition. Two-Term Limitation on President.

District of Columbia Presidential Vote. Presidential Vacancy, Disability and Inability.


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Right to Vote at Age Congressional Compensation. First Amendment Library - Case Summary Quick Summary Details Bibliography Boswell Amendment The Boswell amendment to the Alabama constitution was passed by the Alabama Legislature in and ratified by the Alabama electorate the next year, requiring a prospective voter Fifteenth Amendment to the U.